| || || Prasad, Krishneel K.|
| || || An energy consumption and energy efficiency study of hotels in the Pacific Island countries - a Fijian case study|
Author: Prasad, Krishneel K.
Institution: University of the South Pacific.
Subject: Hotels -- Energy consumption -- Fiji, Hotels -- Energy conservation -- Fiji
Call No.: Pac TJ 163 .5 .H67 P73 2016
Copyright:10-20% of this thesis may be copied without the authors written permission
Abstract: The Pacific Island Countries (PICs) have been heavily reliant on imported fossil fuels for energy generation and the tourism industry uses enormous quantities of energy to provide services and accommodation to tourists for its daily operations. In this study, two hotels from Fiji of different building types and geographic locations have been taken as case studies to study their energy consumption and identify energy efficiency measures for possible energy and cost savings and reduction in carbon footprint. Hotel 1 was a high rise building in the city used mostly by corporate businesses while Hotel 2 was a beachfront villa-type hotel. An energy audit gave a relative measure of the energy consumption in various areas of the buildings. The total energy usage as determined by the utility was then used to determine the actual distribution of energy use in the building. The effect of retrofitting and other energy efficiency measures were then calculated using this model. The annual energy consumption of the buildings was divided into three sectors viz: Production, Services and Management. The highest energy consumption in Hotel 1 was in the use of elevators at 58,432 kWh. In Hotel 2, the kitchen had the highest energy consumption (187,309.9 kWh). Energy savings of 16 – 19% is possible through simple retrofitting and energy efficiency discipline. In Hotel 1, the energy savings through retrofitting was calculated at 52,019.47 kWh/year, which is a cost saving of FJ$22,888.57/year. In Hotel 2, the energy savings were 240,195kWh/year, representing a 19.6% energy savings or FJ$105,686.14 cost savings per year. The carbon-dioxide emission reduction at the utility power station as a result of these savings were 12,484.67 kg for Hotel 1and 57,646.98 kg for Hotel 2. Two energy performance indicators (EPIs) were developed. The first EPI gives energy consumption (kWh) per unit area (m2) and the second is the energy consumption (kWh) per occupied guest room. The analysis of EPI 2 showed a very clear seasonal trend for both hotels. This is attributed to the use of air-conditioning systems which is the highest energy consuming device in a guest room. The differences in energy consumption iv between the two hotels can be partly attributed to the different physical layout of the building envelopes. Finally, a cooling load model for the hotels, and the use of renewable energy were also considered for improving the energy efficiency and/or reducing the carbon footprints of the hotels.