| || || Fotu, Sione Tu'itupou.|
| || || Ship-generated marine pollution in nine ports in the Pacific - identification and prevention |
Author:Fotu, Sione Tu'itupou.
Institution: University of the South Pacific.
Call No.: pac In Process
Copyright:Under 10% of this thesis may be copied without the authors written permission
Abstract: This research identifies ship-generated marine pollution in ports of nine Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs) and related risks while a ship is visiting a port and the measures that could be put into place to prevent marine pollution from occurring. The ports are: Apra of Guam, Apia of Samoa, Honiara of the Solomon Islands, Majuro of the Marshall Islands, Nuku’alofa of Tonga, Pago Pago of American Samoa, Port Moresby of Papua New Guinea, Suva of Fiji, and Tarawa of Kiribati. Under the SPREP study (Marine Pollution Risk Assessment for the Pacific Islands Region) the author collected the basic data during country visits to the nine PICTs which was also used in the thesis but organised differently and presented from a different perspective to the study. Chapter 1 provides a background to the topic, discussing an introduction to the Pacific region, historical development of shipping in the region, rationale and framework, methodology and the establishment of a ship-generated marine pollution index (SMPI) using risk assessment principles, to identify risks of marine pollution (as defined by GESAMP). Risk is defined as the likelihood of an event occurring and the consequence that would result. Likelihood can also be discussed as the threat multiplied by vulnerability. The latter part of this chapter discusses sources of information assessed and the five internal and seven external pollution risk indicators to the ship that are used to identify risks of marine pollution. Measures to prevent pollution of the marine environment will be based on the marine pollution risk indicators identified. In Chapter 2, is the discussion of an introduction to the physical features of the Pacific region that include: geological background, formation of islands, the ocean, wind systems, climate, and a brief introduction to each PICT and each port. Discussed in the latter part of the chapter are the economies of each PICT, trade and shipping. The gross domestic products of each PICT are also discussed. Sea-borne trade in terms of tonnage ii imported and exported by each PICT in order to determine the amount of cargo that may pollute the marine environment such as oil is also discussed. The number of ship calls to each PICT is investigated as the size and type of ships is important in the assessing of risks of pollution to the marine environment. International instruments and measures for the prevention of ship-generated marine pollution is reviewed in Chapter 3, that also cover the history of safety of ships and oil spills at sea, and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) conventions. The provisions of IMO conventions dealing with safety, security and the prevention of marine pollution, and regional agreements under the auspices of the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), on the prevention of marine pollution are also discussed. PICTs that have adopted these IMO conventions and SPREP agreements are identified. The latter part discussed the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its impact on the prevention of marine pollution; the roles that flag States, port State control (PSC), and classification societies play in the safety and security of ships, and the prevention of marine pollution. The SMPI, which use risk management principles, is the main tool for identifying shipgenerated marine pollution. Chapter 4 investigates each of the 12 individual pollution risk indicators which are grouped into internal (five indicators) and external factors (seven indicators). Internal factors cover ships, the cargoes that ships carry, the management of the ships, security issues, and anti-fouling systems are discussed in some detail. Different types of ships, their construction, stability and other safety issues such as training and certification of seafarers, and the minimum number of crew onboard ships are discussed. Marine pollution issues are investigated and ships’ impacts on the marine environment of each PICT port determined. Oil is the main cargo investigated as all nine PICTs kept complete and reliable records on oil imported and exported. Records kept in the nine PICTs regarding other dangerous cargoes have been found to be incomplete and unreliable. Cargoes imported to each PICT is then assessed for their potential to cause iii marine pollution The management of ships is investigated and marine pollution risk scores for each PICT port is calculated. In the latter part of this chapter, external factors to the ship that comprised of seven pollution risk indicators, are also discussed in some detail and the marine pollution risk scores for each PICT port are calculated. The external factors are: meteorological events, accuracy of navigation charts, coastal sea routes and port passages, port infrastructures and conditions, regulatory framework, emergency procedures and equipment. An Analysis of Findings is contained in Chapter 5 which established the SMPI from aggregating pollution risk scores of the 12 pollution risk indicators of each PICT port. Apra recorded the lowest total pollution risk score and was assigned a value of 1 and Tarawa recorded the highest with an index score of 2.36. The total pollution risk score of Apra was used as the base value of the SMPI and the total pollution risk score of each of the other eight PICT ports was divided by that of Apra to obtain each PICT port’s index score. In the latter part of the chapter are the reviews of current policies, legal framework, trade and shipping, economic and social impacts, and the impacts of pollution on the marine environment. The chapter closes with the identification of issues that are critical to the well being of PICTs and the prevention of marine pollution. A review of: issues identified in a regional and international perspective, the 12 pollution risk indicators, impacts of fishing vessels, ships carrying nuclear materials and radio active wastes is undertaken in Chapter 6. International and regional challenges in the prevention of marine pollution are investigated and discussed in some detail in the latter part of the chapter, followed with concluding remarks and 15 recommendations to assist PICTs in addressing the issues and challenges identified, and the prevention of marine pollution in the region.