| || || Marine parks and reserves -- Fiji -- Kadavu -- Planning|
| || || Applying geographic information system and spatial conservation planning tools to strengthen the design of a community-based marine protected area network : a case study of the island province of Kadavu, Fiji|
Author: Wendt, Hans Karl
Institution: University of the South Pacific.
Subject: Marine parks and reserves -- Fiji -- Kadavu -- Planning , Marine resources conservation -- Fiji -- Kadavu -- Planning, Geographic information systems -- Fiji -- Kadavu
Call No.: Pac QH 91 .75 .F5 W462 2013
Copyright:Under 10% of this thesis may be copied without the authors written permission
Abstract: The southern island Province of Kadavu has been leading Fiji’s efforts to protect natural and cultural resources by establishing 60 marine protected areas (MPAs) in 29 traditional fishing grounds or iqoliqolis. These MPAs were selected through a community-based adaptive management process aimed at meeting local-scale conservation and fisheries needs. While many of the management interventions of individual MPAs demonstrate well-defined success by ensuring food security at the individual community level, they potentially lack the coordinated island-wide outcomes desired for the wider area (or province) and the biodiversity conservation benefits associated with an integrated network of MPAs. To evaluate the trade-offs of different approaches, spatial conservation planning tool, Marxan with zones (Marxan Z) was used to examine how well the pre-redesign collection of locally-designed MPAs addresses island-scale conservation and fisheries objectives. Local ecological, governance and socioeconomic knowledge collected using participatory approaches was spatially-integrated with marine habitat type data to evaluate the present design and assess whether or not the pre-redesign MPAs in Kadavu can achieve MPA network objectives. Assessment of the pre-redesign network showed that 12% of key shallow reef habitats have been protected through community-based efforts. With the assistance of the Marxan Z output scenarios, communities were able through a participatory systematic process to redesign a network with 77 MPAs that now protects 19% of key shallow reef habitats. The post-redesign network had an increased number, area and representation of habitats and key ecological features yet had a higher average ‘cost’ per unit area protected based on lost fisheries potential and enforceability of the network. Analytical assessments showed that an area of 60 km2 needed to be protected in order to achieve all conservation targets compared to the 38 km2 achieved in the post-redesign network. This was however achieved at a 36% higher overall cost than the pre-redesign network. The design significantly re-distributed protection within and between fishing grounds and largely forced protection offshore. IV Findings were crucial as Fiji strives to achieve bold conservation targets to effectively manage 30% of nearshore waters in a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA). The outcome was invaluable for developing MPA network design approaches that combine traditional knowledge with ecosystem-based management tools in a manner appropriate to a Melanesian context.